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The expedition, the landing of which on the shores of St.Mary's is thus described, was organized and sent out by Cecilius Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, and the first Proprietary of Maryland, under a charter issued to him, 20 June, 1632, by Charles I of England.
The question was only raised as to the grant of Maryland, and that solely and avowedly because it was a grant to a Catholic nobleman for the purpose of establishing a Catholic colony.
The committee of the Privy Council on American plantations, after a full hearing of both parties, unanimously decided "to leave the Lord Baltimore to his charter, and the Protestants to their remedy at law ".
The latter he was willing to take, the former, as a Catholic, he declined.
Returning to England he sought and obtained from Charles I the charter of Maryland.
] The charter also contained the most comprehensive grant of civil and political authority and jurisdiction that ever emanated from the English Crown.
It was a palatinate that was created with all the royal and viceregal rights pertaining to the unique and exceptional kind of government then existing in the Bishopric of Durham.With these were associated a number of artisans, mechanics, and labourers estimated at 250, the greater part of whom, it is said, were Protestants.Cecilius Calvert carefully prepared and delivered to his brother Leonard, whom he appointed governor, and to the two commissioners, Hawley and Cornwaleys, associated with him in the government of his province, a body of instructions for their conduct while on the voyage, and when and after they should reach their destination.Not having any such remedy, they did not, as they could not, resort to it.After numerous delays and detentions caused by its enemies, the expedition sailed from Southampton, 22 November, 1633.The grantee appointed the governor and all the civil and military officers of the province. He had power of life and death over the inhabitants as regards punishments for crime.