Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy.

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Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC.

After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies.

His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir, then known as Octavianus (Anglicized as Octavian).

He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar.

Octavius only mentions his father's equestrian family briefly in his memoirs.

His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War.

In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator.

By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor.

Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.

The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members.

Philippus claimed descent from Alexander the Great, and was elected consul in 56 BC.